GLAM2 Alphabets

Alphabet files

Alphabet files allow glam2 and glam2scan to operate on sequences over arbitrary, user-defined alphabets. They also allow residue abundances to be specified. Their format is inspired by that of vmatch. For examples, see robinson.alph and dna.alph in the GLAM2 examples directory.

Note: as soon as you specify an alphabet file, the glam2 programs lose all knowledge about residues' tendencies to align with each other. So, if you use an alphabet file to specify amino-acid or nucleotide abundances, you probably want to specify a Dirichlet mixture file too: recode3.20comp or glam_tfbs.1comp.

In alphabet files, the # character introduces a comment: everything from it to the end of the line is ignored. Otherwise, each non-blank line defines a symbol of the alphabet. The first non-whitespace character on the line is the main character representing the symbol: this is how the symbol is printed. Any characters that follow it without any whitespace are aliases (when reading input). This is optionally followed by whitespace and then a number, indicating the abundance of the symbol. The abundances can be counts, fractions, or percentages: they will be normalized so that they sum to 1. Unspecified abundances default to 1. The final symbol is the wildcard: it is forbidden from appearing in aligned columns, and all characters not defined in the alphabet file are aliases of it. No abundance is defined for the wildcard (any number will be ignored).

The order of the symbols matters when reading Dirichlet mixture files or looking at reverse strands.


DNA Alphabet
Amino Acid Alphabet

Built-in alphabets

The p (protein) alphabet is equivalent to using robinson.alph (and recode3.20comp) in the GLAM2 examples directory. The n (nucleotide) alphabet is equivalent to using dna.alph (and glam_tfbs.1comp) in the GLAM2 examples directory.

FASTA format

When reading sequences in FASTA format, the > character begins the title of the next sequence, which continues till the end of the line. In the sequence itself, whitespace is always ignored, and non-whitespace characters are always part of the sequence: if not defined in the alphabet file, they are interpreted as wildcards.

Reverse strands

glam2 and glam2scan provide options to look at both strands of the input sequences. This may only be meaningful for nucleotide sequences, but is actually defined for all alphabets. The reverse strand is obtained by first reversing the sequence, and then swapping each symbol with its opposite in the alphabet's order (apart from wildcards). Thus, for nucleotides, these symbols are swapped: a:t and c:g. For proteins, these symbols are swapped: A:Y, C:W, D:V, E:T, F:S, G:R, H:Q, I:P, K:N, and L:M.